时间：2018-01-02 14:51:30 Source: Economic DailyTime: 2018-01-02 14:51:30
Figure ① On July 7, 2017, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge completed the main project. A 55-kilometer steel bridge flew across the vast sea, which historically linked Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau. (From Xinhua News Agency)
Figure ② The Long March VII Yao 2 carrier rocket and the Tianzhou 1 cargo spaceship are in vertical transfer. (From Xinhua News Agency)
Figure ③ At the Nanshan Observatory in Urumqi, you can see the transit of the Mozi quantum science experimental satellite. (composite picture)
Editors' innovation is the primary driving force for development and a strategic support for building a modern economic system. Looking back at the year that has just passed, China has made great strides in accelerating its journey of building an innovative country. A series of major scientific and technological innovation achievements have been made in the fields of aerospace, electronic information, and equipment manufacturing, which has greatly enhanced our national pride. As 2018 arrives, let us review together what major events happened in China's science and technology industry in 2017-
1. "Mozi" successfully achieved its goal
On June 16, 2017, a joint team of the Chinese Academy of Sciences led by Chinese scientist Academician Pan Jianwei published a paper in the journal Science, announcing that the Mozi quantum satellite successfully achieved the distribution of thousands of kilometers of star-ground bidirectional quantum entanglement and large-scale quantum non-linear Locality test. On August 10, two research papers of the Pan Jianwei team on the quantum satellite "Mozzi" were published online simultaneously in the international authoritative academic journal "Nature". The contents were that "Mozzi" successfully achieved the first satellite-to-satellite international success. Quantum key distribution to the ground, and quantum teleportation from ground to satellite.
At this point, the "Mozi" has successfully achieved all three scientific goals set in advance. Unlike classical communication, quantum key distribution is transmitted through quantum states. Users in two places share unconditionally secure keys, and use this key to encrypt the information one-time and one-time strict encryption, which is currently the only known to humans. An unconditional and undecipherable secure communication method. This means that the human millennium dream of "unencrypted encryption technology" has already become the scientific and technological foundation of reality.
Comment: The "Mozi" quantum satellite is the world's first space quantum scientific experimental satellite developed by China. From the proposal of scientific concepts to the breakthrough of key technologies, from the implementation of engineering organizations to the production of scientific results, the satellites are led by Chinese scientists, which indicates that China's research in the field of quantum communications has reached a comprehensive leading position in the world.
2. "Tianzhou-1" completed many applications
On April 20, 2017, China's first cargo spacecraft "Tianzhou-1" was launched and then successfully completed the first automatic rendezvous and docking with the "Tiangong-2" space laboratory. After the docking is completed, "Tianzhou No. 1" enters the running state of the set combination. On April 27, the "Tianzhou-1" cargo spacecraft and the "Tiangong-2" space laboratory successfully completed the first propellant on-orbit supplementary test, marking the successful completion of the "Tianzhou-1" flight mission. On June 19, "Tianzhou-1" and "Tiangong-2" completed the second rendezvous and docking test. The successful completion of this test has consolidated the spacecraft's multi-directional space rendezvous technology and is of great significance for the subsequent construction of the space station.
At 23:58 on September 12, the "Tianzhou-1" cargo spacecraft successfully completed the autonomous rapid rendezvous and docking test with the "Tiangong-2" space laboratory. This is one of a series of expansion test projects organized and implemented after the successful flight mission of China's manned space engineering space laboratory, which has laid a solid technical foundation for the subsequent development and construction of China's space station project.
Comment: The "Tianzhou-1" mission is the final battle of the manned space engineering space laboratory mission, and it is of great significance for the successful implementation of the subsequent missions of the space station project. The "Tianzhou-1" mission was a complete success, breaking through and testing a series of key technologies such as space station cargo replenishment and propellant on-orbit replenishment, and accumulated important experience for China's space station development, construction, and operation management. This marks the successful completion of the second step of China's manned spaceflight project, and also officially announced that China's spaceflight has entered the "space station era."
3. "Goku" finds abnormal electronic signals
On November 27, 2017, more than 700 days after the dark matter particle detection satellite "Goku" took off, the dark matter satellite team announced that "Goku" obtained the most accurate TeV electronic cosmic ray energy spectrum in the world, and directly measured the energy spectrum for the first time. An inflection at 1 TeV (1 trillion electron volts). This suspected dark matter trace is the latest major discovery of dark matter by scientists in recent years and will open a new window for human observation of the universe. The positive and negative electron pairs generated during the annihilation of the cosmic dark matter may produce some special signals in the total energy spectrum of the electron cosmic rays. As a high-energy particle detection satellite with the widest observational energy range, the best energy resolution, and the strongest particle discrimination ability in the world, Goku is its primary scientific goal.
Comment: Uncovering the mystery of dark matter is believed to be another major leap in human understanding of the laws of nature following Copernicus's heliocentric theory, Newton's law of gravity, Einstein's theory of relativity, and quantum mechanics. The core mission of Goku is to find evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in cosmic ray and gamma ray radiation, and to conduct astrophysics research. If follow-up research confirms that Goku ’s latest findings are related to dark matter, it will be an epoch-making scientific achievement.
4. The first successful domestic flight of the large domestic aircraft C919
On May 5, 2017, China's domestically-made C919 large passenger aircraft successfully made its first flight at Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
The design of the C919 large passenger aircraft is positioned in the 150-seat single-aisle market, the most mainstream in the air transport market, with a standard range of 4,075 kilometers and an increased range of 5,555 kilometers. Since its development in July 2008, the designers of C919 have stepped out of the development path of "Chinese design, system integration, global bidding, and gradually increasing localization", and adhere to the "independent research, international cooperation, and international standards" technical route.
The research and development personnel planned a total of 102 key technological breakthroughs, and 22 provinces and cities in China and hundreds of thousands of industrial personnel participated in the research and development ... C919 promoted China's industrial technological progress and also promoted the revolution in the field of industrial materials.
Comments: The successful first flight of the C919 large passenger aircraft means that China has achieved a cluster breakthrough in civil aircraft technology, forming the core capability of the development of large passenger aircraft in China, marking the historic breakthrough of the "big aircraft dream" that has lingered the Chinese nation for a century and finally on the blue sky There is a large passenger aircraft that belongs to China and is fully developed in accordance with world advanced standards.
5. Major breakthroughs in combustible ice trials
Natural gas hydrate (combustible ice) is an ice-like crystalline substance distributed in deep-sea sediments or land-based permafrost. After burning, it only generates a small amount of carbon dioxide and water, and its energy is 10 times higher than coal, oil, and natural gas.
Natural gas hydrate reserves are huge, and are widely recognized as the alternative energy sources for oil and natural gas. On March 28, 2017, China's first combustible ice test well was drilled and successfully ignited on May 10 to extract natural gas from natural gas hydrate deposits. As of May 26, the test well produced continuous gas 16 Days, with an average daily output of more than 10,000 cubic meters; from May 27th, scientific testing and research on the effects of temperature and pressure changes on reservoirs and bottoms will be carried out according to the construction plan. As a result, China has achieved a number of major breakthroughs in the trial production of natural gas hydrates in the sea area with the longest continuous gas production time, stable air flow, and environmental safety.
Comments: The first successful test of combustible ice has great significance in China. The development and utilization of combustible ice will greatly enhance China's energy security and further optimize the energy consumption structure; support the reform of the oil and gas system, guide enterprises into the field of natural gas hydrate exploration and development, and promote the sustainable and healthy development of the oil and gas industry.
6. The main project of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is completed
On July 7, 2017, the undersea tunnel of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge was officially opened. This means that the world's longest sea-crossing bridge, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, has completed the main project. After opening, the journey between Zhuhai, Macau and Hong Kong will be shortened from 3 hours to half an hour.
With a total length of 55 kilometers, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is known as the "crown" in the history of bridge construction in the world. As a world-class super project, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge has achieved the "six most": the longest overall span, the longest steel structure, the longest submarine immersed tunnel, the most complicated technology in the history of world highway construction, the most difficult construction, The scale of the project is the largest.
Comments: During the construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, a series of construction standards were formed. With the acceleration of the "going out" of China's bridge projects, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge will not only help China to win project initiative when cooperating with foreign countries, but also bring related industry chains out of the country. At the same time, the project is a concentrated display of the achievements of China's bridges in various aspects such as design, construction, material research and development, and has promoted the upgrading and technological progress of China's transportation industry.
7. Opening of quantum confidential communication trunk line
On September 29, 2017, the world's first quantum confidential communication trunk line, the "Beijing-Shanghai Main Line", was officially opened. The "Beijing-Shanghai Main Line" and the "Mozi" quantum scientific experimental satellite were successfully docked, and for the first time, intercontinental quantum secure communication was realized. This means a solid step for the future of quantum-secret communications that cover the world.
The completion of the “Beijing-Shanghai Trunk Line” will connect the full line of quantum confidential communication backbones connecting Beijing, Jinan, Hefei, and Shanghai with a total length of more than 2,000 kilometers. At present, it can meet the key distribution business needs of tens of thousands of users. In terms of business applications, intercontinental quantum communication video conferences between Beijing, Shanghai, Jinan, Hefei, Urumqi Nanshan Ground Station, and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have been implemented.
Comment: The perfect docking of the "Beijing-Shanghai Trunk Line" with the "Mozi" quantum scientific experimental satellite indicates that the prototype of the heaven-earth integrated wide-area quantum communication network has been formed. This will promote the large-scale application of quantum communication in financial, electronic information and other fields, establish a complete quantum communication industry chain, and finally build a quantum Internet based on the security guarantee of quantum communication.
8. "One Star, Two Stars" Launches Beidou III
On November 5, 2017, China successfully launched two Beidou-3 global networking satellites with the Long March IIIB launch vehicle at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. After the satellite is launched into orbit, relevant tests and network verification will be carried out, and services will be launched in due course. After completion, the positioning accuracy of the Beidou III Global Navigation System will be increased by 1 to 2 times, reaching a level of 2.5 meters to 5 meters, and it will provide civilian users with a positioning service with an accuracy of about 10 meters, a speed measurement service of 0.2 meters per second, and Will provide paying users with a higher level of accuracy.
With the initial service provided by the Beidou Foundation Enhancement System, it can provide meters, sub-meters, decimeters and even centimeters. By then, the accuracy of the Chinese Beidou will be comparable to that of the US GPS.
Comment: Under the guidance of the national innovation-driven strategy, Beidou System, as a national high-tech project and an open innovation platform, has increasingly inspired the passion and potential of "double innovation" for the entire people. The first launch of the Beidou III network star marks the start of a new era of global networking for the Beidou satellite navigation system, fully opening up a new situation in Beidou application promotion and industrial development, and writing a new chapter in Beidou international cooperation.
9. "Fuxing" named and put into operation
On June 25, 2017, the Chinese standard EMU with full independent intellectual property rights and reaching the world's advanced level was officially named "Fuxing", and it was officially launched in two directions on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail on June 26.
The "Fuxing" Chinese standard EMU has established a high-speed EMU technology standard system with a complete system, a reasonable structure, and advanced science. International voice and core competitiveness.
In accordance with market demand and technological development trends, China has carried out the top-level design of EMU technology, and actively organized and guided manufacturing enterprises and scientific research institutes to carry out EMU technology innovation. At present, the research and development of 16 marshalling Chinese standard EMUs with a speed of 350 kilometers per hour and the Chinese standard EMUs with a speed of 250 kilometers per hour have been started.
Comment: The appearance of the "Fuxing" will not only lay a solid foundation for China's EMU to achieve full autonomy and standardization, but also promote the sustainable development of China's high-speed railway and accelerate the "going out" of China's high-speed railway. At present, high-speed EMU technology represented by Chinese standard EMUs, as well as various technical fields such as engineering construction, train control, and traction power supply, have reached the world advanced level.
10. "Island making artifact" "Tianyu" launched
On November 3, 2017, China's independently designed and built Asia's largest cutter suction dredger "Tianyu" was successfully launched in Qidong, Jiangsu.
"Tianyu" is equipped with the most powerful digging system in Asia, the largest power delivery system and the most advanced automatic control system in the world. Its mud pump has a transmission power of 17,000 kilowatts, which is the highest power configuration in the world, and its long-distance transmission capacity is 15,000 meters, which is the highest in the world.
"Tianyu" can realize automatic dredging, monitoring and unmanned control, which will greatly improve the operating efficiency. It is suitable for coastal and deep sea port channel dredging and sea-building. It is also called "island artifact".
Comment: The development of the "Tianyu" successfully filled the gap in China's independent design and construction of heavy-duty self-propelled cutter suction vessels, and promoted the enhancement of new equipment, new processes, new materials, information control technology and other supporting application capabilities, and promoted dredging The development and expansion of the industry and the shipbuilding industry has enhanced the core competitiveness of China's dredging enterprises.